Where & How are our Skin Proteins (Collagen) is made?

Introduction

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the skin as well as in our body. It has a fiber like structure and is used to make connective tissues. This type of fiber like tissue connects other tissues together and is a major component of our skin, bones, muscles and other body parts. Water, fats (& lipids) and collagen (protein) are the 3 largest components of our skin.

Protein synthesis is a process integral to the function, structure, and optimal health of the skin. Ribosomes, which are located inside the mitochondria organelle which are located inside our skin cells, mediate the production of proteins including proteins that are part of oxidative phosphorylation complexes and modulate energy production. The LipidTAC products comprise ingredients that are useful for protein synthesis in the skin.

Here is the technical aspect of our ribosomes. Below the tech talk, we tell you how LipidTAC ingredients help the production of collagen proteins.

Mitochondrial Ribosomes

The mitochondrial ribosomes have a smaller ribonucleic acid (RNA), which comprises the 12S small subunit and the 16S large subunit of RNA. The number of modified nucleotides is relatively lesser in mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as compared to other rRNAs. The proteins associated with mitochondrial ribosomes, also called mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) range from 85 to greater than 100 proteins. (O’Brien, 2003)

Protein Synthesis in the Mitochondrial Ribosomes 

Mitochondrial protein synthesis provides the integral components of complexes related to oxidative phosphorylation. The protein synthesis machinery in the mitochondria synthesizes 13 polypeptides that mediate the important functions in the mitochondria. The protein synthesis in the mitochondrial ribosomes comprises transcription and translation. The ribosomes contain the A-site and the P-site, however, mitochondrial ribosomes lack E-site. (Lightowlers et al., 2014)

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins for Skin

While mediating the translation and assembly of proteins in the oxidative phosphorylation complexes, MRPs are also useful for the structure and function of the skin. Mutations that affect the mitochondrial protein translation may lead to damage to the epidermis and impaired skin homeostasis. (Huang et al., 2020)

LipidTAC Products and Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins

The LipidTAC products contain ingredients that are beneficial for the synthesis of proteins (collagen) that mediate the function and health of your skin. The ingredients and their role in the synthesis of skin proteins are as follows. 

Dexpanthenol Vitamin B5 aka pantothenic acid plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Vitamin B5 has moisturizing properties, which modulate the synthesis of procollagen in the fibroblasts and keratinocyte growth factor. (Kobayashi et al., 2011)

Niacinamide Vitamin B3 also plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of keratinocytes and in the synthesis of keratin and ceramides. (Gehring, 2004) Vitamin B3 is also related to dampening the development of skin cancer. Vitamin B3 modulated the mRNA expression of p53 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the skin. This has protective effects against skin cancer. (Liu et al., 2017)

Aloe vera is an important component of LipidTAC products. Amino acids present in aloe vera are involved in protein synthesis, which mediates the growth and healing of the skin. A growth hormone in aloe vera, gibberellins, stimulates protein synthesis and proliferation of fibroblasts. (Suganya et al., 2014)

Conclusion

LipidTAC products comprise ingredients that are useful for protein synthesis in the mitochondrial ribosomes. These ingredients include vitamin B3, vitamin B5, and aloe vera. These ingredients play a pivotal role in regulating protein synthesis in the skin. The proteins include procollagen, keratinocyte growth factor, HIF-1α, p53, and keratin. 

References 

Gehring, W. (2004). Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 3(2), 88-93. 

Huang, G., Li, H., & Zhang, H. (2020). Abnormal Expression of Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins and Their Encoding Genes with Cell Apoptosis and Diseases. Int J Mol Sci, 21(22). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228879 

Kobayashi, D., Kusama, M., Onda, M., & Nakahata, N. (2011). The effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on keratinocyte proliferation and the synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor and collagen in fibroblasts. Journal of pharmacological sciences, 1101140493-1101140493. 

Lightowlers, R. N., Rozanska, A., & Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z. M. (2014). Mitochondrial protein synthesis: figuring the fundamentals, complexities and complications, of mammalian mitochondrial translation. FEBS Lett, 588(15), 2496-2503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2014.05.054 

Liu, T., Yang, H., Mou, Y., & Zhang, H. (2017). Correlation of changes in HIF-1α and p53 expressions with vitamin B3 deficiency in skin cancer patients. Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Societa Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia, 154(5), 513-518. 

O’Brien, T. W. (2003). Properties of human mitochondrial ribosomes. IUBMB life, 55(9), 505-513. 

Suganya, S., Venugopal, J., Agnes Mary, S., Ramakrishna, S., Lakshmi, B., & Giri Dev, V. (2014). Aloe vera incorporated biomimetic nanofibrous scaffold: a regenerative approach for skin tissue engineering. Iranian Polymer Journal, 23(3), 237-248. 

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