OAT PROTEIN

Avena sativa more commonly known as oat is rich in many micro and macronutrients such as calcium, fibers, and amino acids, vitamins such as vitamin B, C, K and E as well as anti-oxidants such as flavonoids, polyphenols and beta carotene. 

It is a healthy substance for the skin as well as for the health of gut and general body for instance, it may improve the immune system and remove toxic and harmful substances from the body, and it may also promote a dietary loss of weight by breaking down the fat. It may also contribute in reducing the cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels and also suppress inflammation along with improving health of the skin. Many research studies even suggested that they may even prevent the development of cancer and also improve the life quality of post-menopausal women due to presence of lignin and phytoestrogen [1]. 

NATURAL OCCURANCE

Oats are one of the most produced grain worldwide after corn, wheat, rice, sorghum and barley [2, 3]. They have a shape similar to barley, but are considered healthier due to abundance of protein, vitamins, fibers and minerals. 

Oat are particularly considered as a high-value crop due to the presence of β-glucan and essential amino acid, Lysine [4, 5, 6, 7]. Other than amino acid, it is also rich in unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid which are associated with many beneficial effects such as lowering the blood cholesterol, preventing dementia and its anti-oxidant properties [7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. Many other biological molecules are also present in oats such as various types of alkaloids and polyphenols (hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, coumaric acid and caffic acid) which are not only responsible for a healthy gut life but also have great roles in promoting healthy skin [12, 13].

BENEFICIAL SKIN EFFECTS

Oat derived ingredients particularly Oat protein is reported to function in skin care and cosmetics industry as an antioxidant, absorbent, bulking agents, abrasive and skin conditioner [14].  

Some of the major properties of Oat protein are as under:

  • MOISTURIZING THE SKIN: 

Oat protein and colloidal oatmeal is available as moisturizing cream. Since oat protein is high in concentration of beta-glucans and starches which thus make it contribute as a water-holding agent and a protective agent for the skin. The moisturizing and hydrating properties thus help to preserve the integrity of stratum corneum barrier (responsible for preventing water loss from skin) [15].

Oat protein containing products are used to treat itchy skin by acting as a moisturizer, they yield promising effects in reducing itching in dryness particularly winter itch, insect bites, chicken pox, swimmer itch (cercarial dermatitis), allergic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis and in contact with poison ivy. They may also be indicated in sunburns, hives, rashes and prickly heat [16-22].

  • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES:

Oat protein is not only rich in anti-pruritic properties but also in anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of a biological molecule called avenanthramides, which have been shown to reduce hypersensitivity induced by oxazolone as well as reduce neurogenic inflammation and the itch mediated by an allergic reaction (histamine mediated) [23]. 

In one of the studies it was reported that colloidal oatmeal and oat protein extracts shows anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [34]. It is possible due to the fact that oat protein results in reduction in the expression of certain biological inflammatory mediators such as NF-kappa B, ROS generation and IL-8. NF-kappa B is an essential nuclear receptor which results in over expression of many other inflammatory mediators thus inducing a cascade of inflammatory process.

On the other hand, IL-8 is also responsible for pruritus and itchy skin [35]. Itching of the skin, thus provoke scratching of the skin in the patient which in turn may disrupt the integrity of skin barrier function which will thus induce a positive feedback cascade which increase much more itching. Composition of oat protein thus restrict the loop cycle of itching and scratching. 

The above mentioned research also demonstrated that by reducing the inflammatory mediators, oat proteins result in eczema, inflammation, dryness and irritation. Lotions and skin care formulation with colloidal oatmeal may not only improve the itchy and dry skin but also sooth the itching. It also pointed out towards the finding that, dryness, roughness of skin and scaling was significantly improved from day 1 in the patients included in the study with further improvement with continued use of the lotion. 

  • REGULATING THE pH:

Oat protein has an excellent buffering properties which was demonstrated when the elevated pH of skin with disease such as eczema or pruritus and alkali treated skin when applied with oat protein product returned back to their normal pH range[36,37]. This fact was further supported by a previous study which postulated that oat protein can buffer skin pH in individuals with atopic dermatitis [38]. The presence of water soluble oat proteins and carbohydrates in colloidal oatmeal demonstrated a high buffering activity which supports the point that colloidal oat may prevent skin irritation and revitalize the skin by conserving the skin barrier [39]. 

It was also observed that it provide a skin barrier related effect and is responsible in formation of a protective moisturizing barrier (reducing transepidermal water loss) thus acting as emollient, humectant and occlusive to the skin [24]. One of the clinical research study postulated that individuals with moderate to severely dry skin when treated with colloidal oatmeal and oat protein resulted in significant moisturization and restoration of water barrier of the skin. On clinical evaluation of skin of patients, it was observed that the dryness of skin was significantly reduced during the treatment and even during the regression phase [39].  

  • PROTECTING AGAINST HARMFUL RADIATIONS:

Oat protein and colloidal oatmeal also functions by protecting the skin against the Ultraviolet A light which is also in regulation with the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) in accordance with the Over-The-Counter Final Monograph for Skin Protectant Drug Products issued in June 2003[32].

  • STERLIZING AGENT:

Many reports have demonstrated that colloidal oatmeal and oat protein may also be used in sterilization of surgical gloves by acting as a dusting powder [23].  

ROLE IN COMBATING VARIOUS SKIN DISEASES

  • EFFECT ON PSORIASIS:

Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory condition which may be considered to be medically and psychosocially debilitating disorder affecting about 1-3% to total world population [25,26]. It is postulated that anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic properties of oat protein may be effective in the treatment of psoriasis [27,28]. 

  • EFFECT ON ATOPIC DERMATITIS:

In one of the clinical trial, a fragrance free oatmeal skin care body was and cream was applied to the skin of 21 patients suffering from mild or moderate degree of Atopic Dermatitis [40]. Additionally, the product contain ceramides, glycerin and panthenol which further increased the efficacy of the product. On evaluating the results after 2 week interval, it was observed that there was a significant reduction in the flaring and severity of eczema [41] 

  • ANTI-VIRAL AGENT: 

In a trial study, patients with molluscum contagiosum (infection caused by pox virus resulting in benign, mild skin disease with lesions affecting any part of the body) were treated successfully with a cream containing zinc oxide and colloidal oatmeal [29].

It is postulated that this anti-viral affect may due to inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid mobilization in the keratinocyte layer of the skin and expression of cytosolic phospholipase AS (PLA2) both of which result in inflammatory reaction in the body [30]. 

  • ANTI-FUNGAL AGENT: 

Oat protein and oat seed extract was found to demonstrate an anti-fungal properties. In one of the article, it was observed that when applied directly on rye bread, it helped to prevent development of Penicillium roqueforti colony [31].  

REFERENCES:

  1. Kim, I. S., Hwang, C. W., Yang, W. S., & Kim, C. H. (2021). Multiple Antioxidative and Bioactive Molecules of Oats (Avena sativa L.) in Human Health. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)10(9), 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091454
  2. Martín-Diana A.B., García-Casas M.J., Martínez-Villaluenga C., Frías J., Peñas E., Rico D. Wheat and oat brans as sources of polyphenol compounds for development of antioxidant nutraceutical ingredients. Foods. 2021;10:115. doi: 10.3390/foods10010115.
  3. Mert I.D. The applications of microfluidization in cereals and cereal-based products: An overview. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2020;60:1007–1024. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1555134.
  4. McKevith B. Nutritional aspects of cereals. Nutr. Bull. 2004;29:111–142. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-3010.2004.00418.x.
  5. Rasane P., Jha A., Sabikhi L., Kumar A., Unnikrishnan V.S. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its pro-cessing as value added foods—A review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2015;52:662–675. doi: 10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1. 
  6. Saccomanno B., Chambers A.H., Hayes A., Mackay I., McWilliam S.C., Trafford K. Starch granule morphology in oat endosperm. J. Cereal Sci. 2017;73:46–54. doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2016.10.011.
  7. Nogala-Kalucka M., Kawka A., Dwiecki K., Siger A. Evaluation of bioactive compounds in cereals. Study of wheat, barley, oat and selected grain products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 2020;19:405–423. 
  8. Capurso C. Whole-grain intake in the mediterranean diet and a low protein to carbohydrates ratio can help to reduce mor-tality from cardiovascular disease, slow down the progression of aging, and to improve lifespan: A review. Nutrients. 2021;13:2540. doi: 10.3390/nu13082540. 
  9. Varma P., Bhankharia H., Bhatia S. Oats: A multi-functional grain. J. Clin. Prev. Cardiol. 2016;5:9–17. doi: 10.4103/2250-3528.183984.
  10. Díaz L.D., Fernández-Ruiz V., Cámara M. An international regulatory review of food health-related claims in functional food products labeling. J. Funct. Foods. 2020;68:103896. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2020.103896.
  11. Shvachko N., Loskutov I., Semilet T., Popov V., Kovaleva O., Konarev A. Bioactive components in oat and barley grain as a promising breeding trend for functional food production. Molecules. 2021;26:2260. doi: 10.3390/molecules26082260.
  12. Wilson D.W., Nash P., Buttar H.S., Griffiths K., Singh R., De Meester F., Horiuchi R., Takahashi T. The role of food antioxidants, benefits of functional foods, and influence of feeding habits on the health of the older person: An overview. Antioxidants. 2017;6:81. doi: 10.3390/antiox6040081.
  13. Kim S., Kim T., Jeong Y., Park S., Park S., Lee J., Yang K., Jeong J., Kim C. Synergistic effect of methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid co-treatment on avenanthramide production in germinating oats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021;22:4779. doi: 10.3390/ijms22094779.
  14. Nikitakis J, Breslawec HP. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. 15th ed. Washington, DC: Personal Care Products Council; 2014.
  15. Kurtz ES, Wallo W. Colloidal oatmeal: History, chemistry and clinical properties. J Drugs Dermatol 2007;6:167-70.
  16. Cerio R, Dohil M, Downie J, Magina S, Mah´e E, Stratigos A. Mechanism of action and clinical benefits of colloidal oitmeal for dermatolagic practice. J Drug Dermatol. 2010;9(9):1116-1120.
  17. Fowler JF, Nebus J, Wallo W, Eichenfield L. Colloidal oatmeal formulations as adjunct treatments in atopic dermatitis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(7):804-807
  18. Physician’s Desk Reference for Nonprescription Drugs. 15th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Data Production Co; 1994
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chickenpox (Varicella). http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/index.html. Created November 16, 2014. Updated 2014. Accessed February 25, 2014.
  20. Dick LA. Colloidal emollient bath in pediatric dermatoses. Arch Pediat. 1958;75:506-508
  21. Dick LA. Colloidal emollient baths in geriatric dermatoses. Skin. 1962;1:89-91.
  22. Grais ML. Role of colloidal oatmeal in dermatological treatment of the aged. AMA Arch Dermatol Syphilol. 1953;68:402-407.
  23. Elder RL. Final report of the safety assessment for wheat germ glycerides and wheat gluten. J Enviro Pathol Toxicol. 1980;4(4): 5-17.
  24. Wallo W, Nebus J, Nystrand G.Agents with adjunctive potential in atopic dermatitis. Presented at: 65th Annual Meeting of the Becker et al 45S American Academy of Dermatology; February 02, 2007; Washington, DC.
  25. Kurian A, Barankin B. Current effective topical therapies in the management of psoriasis. Skin Ther Lett 2011;16:4-7.
  26. Afifi T, de Gannes G, Huang C, Zhou Y. Topical therapies for psoriasis: Evidence-based review. Can Fam Physician 2005;51:519-25.
  27. Fowler JF Jr, Woolery-Lloyd H, Waldorf H, Saini R. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care. J Drugs Dermatol 2010;9:S72-81.
  28. Sadiq Butt M, Tahir-Nadeem M, Khan MK, Shabir R, Butt MS. Oat: Unique among the cereals. Eur J Nutr 2008;47:68-79.
  29. Safa G, Darrieux L. Successful treatment of molluscum contagiosum with a zinc oxide cream containing colloidal oatmeal extracts. Indian J Dermatol 2010;55:295-6.
  30. Aries MF, Vaissiere C, Pinelli E, Pipy B, Charveron M. Avena Rhealba inhibits A23187-stimulated arachidonic acid mobilization, eicosanoid release, and cPLA2 expression in human keratinocytes: Potential in cutaneous inflammatory disorders. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:601-6.
  31. Sørensen HP, Madsen LS, Petersen J, Andersen JT, Hansen AM, Beck HC. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2010;160:1573-84.
  32. Kurtz ES, Wallo W. Colloidal oatmeal: History, chemistry and clinical properties. J Drugs Dermatol 2007;6:167-70
  33. White AM, Jeffrey LP. Sterilization of colloidal oatmeal for use as dusting powder in surgical gloves. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1958;130:82-5.
  34. Michelle Garay, M., Judith Nebus, M., & Menas Kizoulis, B. (2015). Antiinflammatory activities of colloidal oatmeal (Avena sativa) contribute to the effectiveness of oats in treatment of itch associated with dry, irritated skin. J Drugs Dermatol14(1), 43-48.
  35. Lippert U, Hoer A, Moller A et al. Role of antigen-induced cytokine release in atopic pruritus. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1998;116:36-39.
  36. Ali SM, Yosipovitch G. Skin pH: from basic science to basic skin care. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013;93:261-267
  37. Rippke F, Schreiner V, Schwanitz HJ. The acidic milieu of the horny layer: new findings on the physiology and pathophysiology of skin pH. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3:261-272.
  38. Grais ML. Role of colloidal oatmeal in dermatologic treatment of the aged. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol. 1953;68:402-407
  39. Michelle Garay, M. (2016). Colloidal oatmeal (Avena Sativa) improves skin barrier through multi-therapy activity. J Drugs Dermatol15(6), 684-690.
  40. Nebus J, Wallo W, Fowler J. Evaluating the safety and tolerance of a body wash and moisturizing regimen in patients with atopic dermatitis. Poster presented at: 65th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology; February 2-6, 2007; Washington, DC. P714.
  41. Eichenfield LF, Fowler JF Jr, Rigel DS, Taylor SC. Natural advances in eczema care. Cutis. 2007 Dec;80(6 Suppl):2-16. PMID: 18277662.
Shopping Cart