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Ingredient Studies

Establishing Trust

Trust is established when all of the ingredients used in a product are backed by trusted scientific research from trusted medical libraries and archives.

As you can read for yourself, these ingredients doesn’t mess with your immune systems, they strengthen them, your skin and will give you peace of mind.

You cannot benefit from topicals you don’t use, isn’t it time you put psoriasis in the rearview?

Ingredient Studies:

Allantoin:

  • Allantoin enables exfoliation of Skin. It has the property to exfoliate the skin removing the tough, dead layer of the skin and shed t off. As a result, allantoin keeps the skin soft and smooth. Savić VL, Nikolić VD, Arsić IA, Stanojević LP, Najman SJ, Stojanović S, Mladenović‐Ranisavljević II. Comparative study of the biological activity of allantoin and aqueous extract of the comfrey root. Phytotherapy Research. 2015 Aug;29(8):1117-22.
  • Allantoin plays an efficient role in synthesis of collagen which is responsible for skin to keep tight and wrinkle free. Pinsky MA. Efficacy and Safety of an Anti-aging Technology for the Treatment of Facial Wrinkles and Skin Moisturization. The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology. 2017 Dec;10(12):27.
  • Allantoin & Wound Healing in 5 different studies. Allantoin were tested for wound healing of the skin. Allantoin was found to sooth the injured skin and heal the wounds. No adverse effects to allantoin were reported. Margraf HW, Covey TH. A trial of silver-zinc allantoinate in the treatment of leg ulcers. Arch Surg. 1977;112:699-704, Almeyda J, Wood H. Treatment of psoriasis: comparative study using allantoin coal tar extract combined with hydrocortisone and betamethasone valerate. Br J Clin Prac. 1979;33: 106-108, Willital GH, Heine H. Efficacy of Contracubex1 Gel in the treatment of fresh scars after thoracic surgery in children and adolescents. Int J Clin Pharm Res. 1994;14:193-202, Garnick JJ, Singh B, Winkley G. Effectiveness of a medicament containing silicon dioxide, aloe, and allantoin on aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1998;86:550-556 and Wadhams PS, Griffith J, Nikravesh P, Chodosh D. Efficacy of a surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride solution for onychomycosis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1999;89:124-130
  • Allantoin moisturizes the skin and protects it against irritation and dryness. It is even safe for sensitive skin types since no allergic or irritation reactions are induced by it. Sethi A, Kaur T, Malhotra SK, Gambhir ML. Moisturizers: the slippery road. Indian journal of dermatology. 2016 May;61(3):279.
  • Allantoin reduces the TEWL (transepidermal water-loss) which is responsible for making the skin loose and appear dry and itchy.
  • Oliveira G, Leverett JC, Emamzadeh M, Lane ME. The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2014 Apr 10;464(1-2):145-51.
  • Allantoin is Non-Irritating Kahan H, Schwartzman J, Sawicky HH. A new topical remedy for the prevention and management of napkin dermatitis (diaper rash). Arch Pediatr. 1956;73:12-29 and Kaessler HW. Dermatitis of the diaper area: a new remedy for an old affliction. Arch Pediatr. 1957;74:47-50.

Aloe Vera:

  • Aloe Vera stimulates tissue growth and cell regeneration (Rahman S, Carter P, Bhattarai N. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications. J Funct Biomater. 2017 Feb 14;8(1):6. doi: 10.3390/jfb8010006. PMID: 28216559; PMCID: PMC5371879.
  • Aloe Vera anti-inflammatory effects, wound healing properties, radiation damage repair benefits, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, hematopoietic stimulation, and antioxidant effects  (Ho M.H., Hsieh C.C., Hsiao S.W., van Hong Thien D. Fabrication of asymmetric chitosan GTR membranes for the treatment of periodontal disease. Carbohydr. Polym. 2010;79:955–963. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.10.031.) & (Radha M.H., Laxmipriya N.P. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of aloe vera: J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2015;5:21–26. doi: 10.1016/ j.jtcme.2014.10.006.)
  • Aloe Vera‘s substantial healing properties (Lawless J, Allan J. Aloe vera- Natural Wonder Cure. Harper Collins Publishers, Hammersmith, London, 2000; 5-12, 50-75, 161-165) & (Davis et 1987 Al-, Fulton 1990, Heggers 1996).
  • Aloe Vera ‘s immune modeling, Aloe Vera exerts an effect on the cellular system (Green 1996, Mariscal et 1993 Al-, Winters 1993).
  • Aloe Vera accelerates wound healing (Danhoff and McAnally 1983).
  • Aloe Vera’s anti-inflammatory & anti-microbial effects (Danhoff and McAnally 1983).
  • Aloe Vera‘s skin protection potential (Beers MH, Porter R, Jones TV, Kaplan JL, Berkwits M. The Merck Manual)

Avena Sativa (Oat Proteins):

  • Oat Proteins diminishes pro-inflammatory cytokines (Reynertson KA, Garay M, Nebus J, Chon S, Kaur S, Mahmood K, Kizoulis M, Southall MD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015 Jan;14(1):43-8. PMID: 25607907.)
  • Oat Proteins induces genes expression related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions, lipid regulation and provide pH-buffering capacity (Ilnytska O, Kaur S, Chon S, Reynertson KA, Nebus J, Garay M, Mahmood K, Southall MD. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa)Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity. PMID: 27272074.)
  • Oat Proteins is valuable  in restoring the cutaneous barrier and reducing symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis (26- Eichenfield LF, Fowler JF Jr, Rigel DS, Taylor SC. Natural advances in eczema care. Cutis. 2007 Dec;80(6 Suppl):2-16. PMID: 18277662)
  • Oat Proteins demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, drug-induced rashes (Cerio R, Dohil M, Jeanine D, Magina S, Mahé E, Stratigos AJ. Mechanism of action and clinical benefits of colloidal oatmeal for dermatologic practice. PMID: 20865844.
  • Oat Proteins improved clinical outcomes of atopic dermatitis (Fowler JF, Nebus J, Wallo W, Eichenfield LF. Colloidal oatmeal formulations as adjunct treatments in atopic dermatitis. PMID: 22777219.)

Avocado Oil:

  • Avocade oil has cytoprotective affects. Queiroz Junior, N. F., Steffani, J. A., Machado, L., Longhi, P., Montano, M., Martins, M., Machado, S. A., Machado, A. K., & Cadoná, F. C. (2021). Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of avocado oil and extract (Persea americana Mill) (Vero). Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A84(21), 875–890. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2021.1945515
  • Wound healing properties of avocado oil. de Oliveira, A. P., Franco, E., Rodrigues Barreto, R., Cordeiro, D. P., de Melo, R. G., de Aquino, C. M., E Silva, A. A., de Medeiros, P. L., da Silva, T. G., Góes, A. J., & Maia, M. B. (2013). Effect of semisolid formulation of persea americana mill (avocado) oil on wound healing. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM2013, 472382. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/472382
  • The Linoleic acid component of avocado oil, in particular, is effective at rebuilding, stabilizing, and maintaining the integrity of the skin barrier. Elias, P. M., Brown, B. E., & Ziboh, V. A. (1980). The permeability barrier in essential fatty acid deficiency: evidence for a direct role for linoleic acid in barrier function. Journal of Investigative Dermatology74(4), 230-233.

Ceramides:

  • Ceramide Complex, topically applied multi-lamella system of ceramides, cholesterol and phytoshingosine (ceramide complex) play a very important role in reducing the Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) and subsequently increasing the hydration of skin and play a very beneficial in the improvement of the diseased skin Schmitt, T.; Lange, S.; Sonnenberger, S.; Dobner, B.; Demé, B.; Neubert, R.H.; Gooris, G.; Bouwstra, J.A. Determination of the influence of C24 D/(2R)-and L/(2S)-isomers of the CER[AP] on the lamellar structure of stratum corneum model systems using neutron diffraction. Chem. Phys. Lipids 2017, 209, 29–36.
  • Topical cream with ceramide 1 and 9 in a ratio of 0.3 percent, along with cholesterol, 1, 3 butylene glycol and aqueous lecithin were able to revitalize the damaged barrier when observed by TEM imaging. Tessema, E.N.; Gebre-Mariam, T.; Paulos, G.; Wohlrab, J.; Neubert, R.H. Delivery of oat-derived phytoceramides into the stratum corneum of the skin using nanocarriers: Formulation,
  • A of triple lipid, ceramide dominant, and barrier repair therapy is supported by two additional clinical studies and received FDA Approval Tashiro, T.; Nakaune, A.; Kosugi, T.; Arakawa, J.; Mori, H.; Serizawa, S.; Suzuki, K.; Mori, F.; Orikasa, A.; Nakamura, Y. Development of functional cosmetics “ASTALIFT JELLY AQUARYSTA”. Fugifilm Res. Dev. 2011, 56, 1–4.

Cetearyl Alcohol (emulsifier):

  • Cetearyl Alcohol is a long chain aliphatic alcohol that functions as a viscosity agent, emollients, and emulsion stabilizer for creams and lotions among many other products. Elder, R. (1988). Final report on the safety assessment of cetearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, isostearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, and behenyl alcohol. J Am Coll Toxicol, 7(3), 359-413.
  • Cetearyl alcohol forms a protective barrier over the skin which prevents the skin from becoming dry and rough, and helps the skin become soft and smooth. Elder, R. (1988). Final report on the safety assessment of cetearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, isostearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, and behenyl alcohol. J Am Coll Toxicol, 7(3), 359-413.

Cholesterol:

  • Cholesterol is, or should be the most abundant individual lipid in the upper most layer of the skin, about 25 percent of the stratum corneum lipid mass is, or should be cholesterol. Lavrijsen AP, Bouwstra JA, Gooris GS, Weerheim A, Bodde HE, Ponec M. Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with lamellar ichthyosis. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 105: 619 ± 624.
  • Cholesterol is an essential part of membrane lipid structure and plays a key role in fluidizing the membrane. It plays a pivotal role in maintaining a degree of fluidity to the epidermal waterproof barrier. This is essential for flexibility and stability of barrier which otherwise might be rigid and brittle. Wertz PW. Lipids and barrier function of the skin. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 2000 Jan 2;80.
  • This study was conducted in which the affected patients were given topical treatment in the form of cholesterol cream, it was found that the cholesterol cream produced a positive effect on the skin and no untoward effect was observed. Lykkesfeldt G, Høyer H. Topical cholesterol treatment of recessive X-linked ichthyosis

Coconut oil:

  • Helps against hyper-inflammatory states (Yang, D., Pornpattananangkul, D., Nakatsuji, T., Chan, M., Carson, D., Huang, C. M., & Zhang, L.) (2009).
  • Improves protective barrier functions (Kim, S.; Jang, J.E.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.I.; Lee, D.W.; Song, S.Y.; Lee, J.H., Food Chem. Toxicol. 2017, 106 (Pt A), 367–375).
  • An excellent anti-oxidant, it neutralizes free radicals (Nakatsuji, T., Kao, M. C., Fang, J. Y., Zouboulis, C. C., Zhang, L., Gallo, R. L., & Huang, C. M.) (2009).
  • Help restore normal hydration levels (Pharmaceutical biology48(2), 151–157) & (Nevin, K. G., & Rajamohan, T.) (2010).
  • Promotes faster wound healing (Nevin, K.G.; Rajamohan, T, Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 2010, 23, 290–297)
  • Coconut Oil Anti-microbial properties (Bandier, J., Carlsen, B. C., Rasmussen, M. A., Petersen, L. J., & Johansen, J. D.) (2015).

Coenzyme Q10:

  • Coenzyme Q10 plays an important part in metabolic actions and protects against the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are extremely dangerous to the cell, producing oxidative damage to the lipids, proteins and DNA component of the living cellB. Beckman and B.N. Ames, Oxidative decay of DNA, The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272(32) (1997), 19 633–19 636 and B.S. Berlett and E.R. Stadtman, Protein oxidation in aging, disease, and oxidative stress, The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272(33) (1997), 20 313–20 316.
  • Coenzyme Q10 are synthesized and present in the mitochondria and is a component of reactions which produce ATP. ATP powers 95% of the energy in our body. Okamoto T, Matsuya T, Fukunaga Y, Kishi T, Yamagami T (1989). “Human serum ubiquinol-10 levels and relationship to serum lipids”. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 59 (3): 288–92 and Aberg F, Appelkvist EL, Dallner G, Ernster L (June 1992). “Distribution and redox state of ubiquinones in human tissues”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 295 (2): 230–4 and Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Epstein W, Packer L (January 1994). “Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin”. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 102 (1): 122–4.
  • CoQ10 when applied topically exerts a beneficial effect by reducing the damage to the mitochondrial membrane, and may act as an anti-oxidant in human cells from young as well as old individuals. Hoppe U, Bergemann J, Diembeck W, Ennen J, Gohla S, Harris I, Jacob J, Kielholz J, Mei W, Pollet D, Schachtschabel D. Coenzyme Q_ {10}, a cutaneous antioxidant and energizer. Biofactors. 1999 Jan 1;9(2‐4):371-8.
  • Coenzyme Q10 can reduce the hazardous effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) radiations on the dermal fibroblast and maintain the dermal matrix. Hoppe U, Bergemann J, Diembeck W, Ennen J, Gohla S, Harris I, Jacob J, Kielholz J, Mei W, Pollet D, Schachtschabel D. Coenzyme Q_ {10}, a cutaneous antioxidant and energizer. Biofactors. 1999 Jan 1;9(2‐4):371-8.
  • Regular use of Q10 on skin can significantly protect the outermost skin layer in all the age categories. Knott A, Achterberg V, Smuda C, Mielke H, Sperling G, Dunckelmann K, Vogelsang A, Krüger A, Schwengler H, Behtash M, Kristof S. Topical treatment with coenzyme Q 10‐containing formulas improves skin’s Q 10 level and provides antioxidative effects. Biofactors. 2015 Nov 12;41(6):383-90.

Cranberry Seed Oil:

  • The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties of cranberry seed oil are attributed to phenolic acids, tannins, flavonoids, and anthocyanins and demonstrates radical scavenging activity which helps prevent radical-mediated damage to the DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids of the cells.. Mahdi, W. A., Alam, P., Alshetaili, A., Alshehri, S., Ghoneim, M. M., & Shakeel, F. (2022). Product Development Studies of Cranberry Seed Oil Nanoemulsion. Processes, 10(2), 393 and Ramadan, M. F. (2019). Fruit oils: Chemistry and functionality. Springer, and Yu, L. L., Zhou, K. K., & Parry, J. (2005). Antioxidant properties of cold-pressed black caraway, carrot, cranberry, and hemp seed oils. Food chemistry, 91(4), 723-729.

Dexpanthenol (Vitamin B5):

  • Dexpanthenol stabilizes the epidermal barrier by up-regulating the synthesis of proteins and sphingolipids (24- Camargo, F. B., Jr, Gaspar, L. R., & Maia Campos, P. M. (2011).)
  • Dexpanthenol causes both the proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts, which then speeds up the wound healing process. It also accelerates the re-epithelization in wound healing by upregulating and stimulating keratinocyte proliferation (24- Camargo, F. B., Jr, Gaspar, L. R., & Maia Campos, P. M. (2011)
  • Dexpanthenol plays a vital role in subcellular signaling pathways and reduces inflammation around the skin. (22-Proksch, E., & Nissen, H. P. (2002))
  • Dexpanthenol reduced trans-epidermal water loss, improves the hydration of the stratum corneum and improves and stabilizes the epidermal barrier functioning of the skin. ( 23- Gehring, W., & Gloor, M. (2000))
  • Dexpanthenol enhances the moisturizing through collagen and keratinocyte growth (21- Kobayashi, D., Kusama, M., Onda, M., & Nakahata, N. (2011).)

Essential Fatty Acids:

(alpha linoleic acid and linolenic acid are the primary essential fatty acids the body needs and are a component of red raspberry seed oil, cranberry seed oil, avocado oil, rose hips oil & grape seed oil)

  • Topical administration of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) can reduce the symptoms of deficiency in humans. Prottey C, Hartop PJ, Press M. Correction of the cutaneous manifestations of essential fatty acid deficiency in man by application of sunflower-seed oil to the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1975;64:228-234
  • The application of omega-6 fatty acid increased the Linoleic acid (LA) content of epidermis, reduced the scale formation of skin, Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) was normalized after a few weeks, even the bio-chemical symptoms of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) deficiency were corrected. Press M, Hartop PJ, Prottey C. Correction of essential fatty-acid deficiency in man by the cutaneous application of sunflower-seed oil. Lancet. 1974;1:597-598.
  • Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) correct skin deficiencies, topical application is the best route for effective treatment of skin disease. Press M, Hartop PJ, Prottey C. Correction of essential fatty-acid deficiency in man by the cutaneous application of sunflower-seed oil. Lancet. 1974;1:597-598.
  • The essential fatty acids can even protect the skin against the harmful ultraviolet radiations of the sun as suggested by these studies. Pilkington SM, Watson RE, Nicolaou A, Rhodes LE. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: photoprotective macronutrients. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:537-543, and Sies H, Stahl W. Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:173-200.
  • Topically applied omega 3 fatty acid greatly reduced the ultra-violet B induced erythema. Puglia C, Tropea S, Rizza L, Santagati NA, Bonina F. In vitro percutaneous absorption studies and in vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential fatty acids (EFA) from fish oil extracts. Int J Pharm. 2005;299:41-48. (PubMed)
  • Five separate studies show the deficiency of essential fatty acids is characterized by hyper-proliferation of skin and effect the functioning of skin, disrupts the barrier functions and increase the skins Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL). Hansen HS, Jensen B. Essential function of linoleic acid esterified in acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide in maintaining the epidermal water permeability barrier. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;834:357-363 and Jeppesen PB, Hoy CE, Mortensen PB. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:126-133, and  Chapkin RS, Ziboh VA, McCullough JL. Dietary influences of evening primrose and fish oil on the skin of essential fatty acid-deficient. J Nutr. 1987;117:1360-1370 and Ziboh VA, Chapkin RS. Biologic significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skin. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1686a-1690 and Press M, Hartop PJ, Prottey C. Correction of essential fatty-acid deficiency in man by the cutaneous application of sunflower-seed oil. Lancet. 1974;1:597-598.

Flavonoids: (component of grape seed oil):

  • Flavonoids such as hesperitin and naringenin penetrate through the skin and protect the skin against erythema caused by exposure to UVB radiation. Flavonoids tend to absorb UVR before they penetrate and damage the skin. Angelo, G. (2012b). Flavonoids and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/flavonoids
  • Flavonoids target the phase I and phase II enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism, preventing the activation of carcinogenic substances. Xenobiotic metabolism of the harmful substances in the skin prevents these substances from damaging the skin and other tissues. Angelo, G. (2012b). Flavonoids and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/flavonoids

Flavonoids help treat psoriasis owing to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Flavonoids suppress the release of IL-4, IL-13, and histamine from mast cells and basophils, thus, exhibiting anti-allergic effects against allergic contact dermatitis. Działo, M., Mierziak, J., Korzun, U., Preisner, M., Szopa, J., & Kulma, A. (2016). The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders. Int J Mol Sci, 17(2), 160. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020160

Glycerin/Glycerol:

  • Glycerin/Glycerol protection against irritating stimuli, enhancement of desmosomal degradation, and acceleration of wound-healing processes. (Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Surber C. Glycerol and the skin: holistic approach to its origin and functions.. PMID: 18510666.)
  • Glycerin/Glycerol Improvement of stratum corneum hydration, skin barrier function and skin mechanical properties, inhibition of the stratum corneum lipid phase transition. (Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Surber C. Glycerol and the skin: holistic approach to its origin and functions.. PMID: 18510666.)
  • Glycerin/Glycerol increase the water content of epidermal and dermal. Likely to structural changes in the skin relief. (Caberlotto E, Cornillon C, Njikeu S, Monot M, Vicic M, Flament F. Synchronized in vivo measurements of skin hydration and trans-epidermal water loss. Exploring their mutual influences. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2019 Oct;41(5):437-442. doi: 10.1111/ics.12556. Epub 2019 Sep 4. PMID: 31310331.)
  • Glycerin/Glycerol – Skin hydration in the Stratum corneum (Verdier-Sévrain S, Bonté F. Skin hydration: a review on its molecular mechanisms. PMID: 17524122.)

Glyceryl Stearate (emulsifier/moisturizer):

  • Glyceryl Stearate emollient properties are attributed to glycerol, which is a fast-penetrating emollient and forms a protective barrier over the skin. Bárány, E., Lindberg, M., & Lodén, M. (2000). Unexpected skin barrier influence from nonionic emulsifiers. Int J Pharm, 195(1-2), 189-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(99)00388-9
  • Retained moisture nourishes the skin and makes it appear soft and smooth. Salvio Neto, H., & Matos, J. d. R. (2011). Compatibility and decomposition kinetics studies of prednicarbate alone and associated with glyceryl stearate. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry, 103(1), 393-399

Goat's Milk:

  • Goat Milk whey protein and lactoferrin can be used as a treatment option for psoriasis due to its properties as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. In this 22 patient study, showed a remarkable reduction in redness, scaling and elevation of the psoriatic plaque. Saraceno R., Gramiccia T., Chimenti S., Valenti P., Pietropaoli M., Bianchi L. Topical Lactoferrin Can Improve Stable Psoriatic Plaque. G. Ital. Dermatol. Venereol. 2014;149:335–340.
  • Goat milk is high in cholesterols and fatty acid which may balance the low levels present in the skin of individuals with psoriasis, eczema and xerosis. Meckfessel MH, Brandt S. The structure, function, and importance of ceramides in skin and their use as therapeutic agents in skin-care products. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Jul;71(1):177-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.01.891. Epub 2014 Mar 20. PMID: 24656726. 2nd study: Spada F, Barnes TM, Greive KA. Skin hydration is significantly increased by a cream formulated to mimic the skin’s own natural moisturizing systems. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2018 Oct 15;11:491-497. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S177697. PMID: 30410378; PMCID: PMC6197824.
  • Goat milk lactic acid is the mildest and gentlest form of AHAs making it a suitable option for individuals for sensitive skin type.  Perin, L. M., & Nero, L. A. (2014). Antagonistic lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk and identification of a novel nisin variant Lactococcus lactis. BMC microbiology, 14, 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-14-36
  • Goat milk contains alpha- hydroxyl acids (AHAs) which are rich in exfoliating and anti-aging properties. Tang SC, Yang JH. Dual Effects of Alpha-Hydroxy Acids on the Skin. Molecules. 2018 Apr 10;23(4):863. doi: 10.3390/molecules23040863. PMID: 29642579; PMCID: PMC6017965.
  • Goat milk supports the normal flora of the skin. Byrd AL, Belkaid Y, Segre JA. The human skin microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Mar;16(3):143-155. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.157. Epub 2018 Jan 15. PMID: 29332945.
  • Goat milk is an excellent cleaning agent. It not only remove dirt and debris but also maintain the moisture of the skin, replenishes essential lipids required for the health of skin and maintain the water barrier of the skin. Ferreira, E., Lucas, R., Rossi, L.A., Andrade, D., 2003. Rev. Esc. Enferm. 37, 44–51.

Grape Seed Oil:

  • Grape Seed Oil: (High in vitamin E, alpha linolenic acid (ALA), omega-3, 6 & 9 fatty acids, Olecic acid & Very high phospholipids & flavonoids):
  • Grape seed oil can lower the levels of Nitric Oxide which is a culprit of cell proliferation. Shiri J., Cicurel A.A., & Cohen, A.D. (2011). An open-label study of herbal topical medication (Psirelax) for patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Science World Journal, 6: 13-16.
  • Grape seed oil is abundant in polyphenols, which suppress the expression of certain genes that produce proinflammatory cytokines. Shiri J., Cicurel A.A., & Cohen, A.D. (2011). An open-label study of herbal topical medication (Psirelax) for patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Science World Journal, 6: 13-16.
  • Grapeseed oil promotes the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proanthocyanidins can play a major role in healing the skin damaged by psoriasis. Morse, T. J., & Selmont, T. A. (2013). U.S. Patent No. 8,545,904. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  • Grape seed oil studies concludes regenerating the skin, stimulating skin growth and reducing the TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss). Conti A., Rogers, J., Verdejo, P., Harding, L.R., Rawlings.A.V.: Seasonal influences on stratum corneum ceramide 1 fatty acids and the influence of topical essential fatty acids. J Cosmet Sci,;18: 1-12 (1995) and Jimenez-Arnau A.: Effects of Linoleic Acid Supplements on Atopic dermatitis. Adv. Exp. Med.Biol.433:285-9, (1997).
  • Grape seed oil studies concludes regenerating the skin, stimulating skin growth and reducing the TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss). Conti A., Rogers, J., Verdejo, P., Harding, L.R., Rawlings.A.V.: Seasonal influences on stratum corneum ceramide 1 fatty acids and the influence of topical essential fatty acids. J Cosmet Sci,;18: 1-12 (1995) and Jimenez-Arnau A.: Effects of Linoleic Acid Supplements on Atopic dermatitis. Adv. Exp. Med.Biol.433:285-9, (1997).

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) Vitamin C:

  • MAP reduces the degradation of collagen as well as facilitates the production and stabilization of collagen in the skin Al-Niaimi, F., & Chiang, N. Y. Z. (2017). Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol, 10(7), 14-17.
  • MAP improves the rate of fibrillation of collagen. Lakra, R., Kiran, M. S., & Korrapati, P. S. (2021). Effect of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate on collagen stabilization for wound healing application. Int J Biol Macromol, 166, 333-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.193
  • MAP is readily absorbed into the skin, reduces transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and improves hydration of the skin. Kandil, S. M., Soliman, II, Diab, H. M., Bedair, N. I., Mahrous, M. H., & Abdou, E. M. (2022). Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate vesicular carriers for topical delivery; preparation, in-vitro and ex-vivo evaluation, factorial optimization, and clinical assessment in melasma patients. Drug Deliv, 29(1), 534-547. https://doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2022.2036872
  • Helps eliminate the products of lipid peroxidation. Hwang, T. L., Tsai, C. J., Chen, J. L., Changchien, T. T., Wang, C. C., & Wu, C. M. (2012). Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and coenzyme Q10 protect keratinocytes against UVA irradiation by suppressing glutathione depletion. Mol Med Rep, 6(2), 375-378. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2012.933

Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide):

  • Niacinamide improved barrier functions & anti-aging benefits  (. J Clin Dermatol. 2003;32S:9–18)
  • Niacinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides & stratum corneum lipids, improves epidermal permeability barrier. (Tanno O, Ota Y, Kitamura N, Katsube T, Inoue S Br J Dermatol. 2000 Sep; 143(3):524-31)
  • Niacinamide substantiates  the ability of Niacinamide to up-regulate dermal matrix collagen and protein production. (60th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2002; New Orleans & Intl Fed Soc Cosmet Chem Mag. 2002;5:285–289)
  •  Niacinamide reduces levels of toxic radicals present inside the skin cells (Olsen A, Siboska GE, Clark BF, Rattan SI Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Nov 19; 265(2):499-502.)
  • Niacinamide potential effect of modulating the gene expression involved in cellular proliferation (Sefton J, Kligman AM, Kopper SC, Lue JC, Gibson JR J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Oct; 43(4):656-63)
  • Niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyper pigmentation (Bissett DL, Miyamoto K, Sun P, Li J, Berge CA Int J Cosmet Sci. 2004 Oct; 26(5):231-8)
  • Niacinamide improves aging facial skin appearance (Bissett DL, Oblong JE, Berge CA Dermatol Surg. 2005 Jul; 31(7 Pt 2):860-5; discussion 865)

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-7 (Pal-GQPR) (Skin Signaling Peptide):

  • Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 reduces the release of IL-6. This helps modulate inflammation and prevents associated damage to the skin tissues. Also, Palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 stimulates the production of collagen VII and laminin IV and V. Resende, D., Ferreira, M. S., Sousa-Lobo, J. M., Sousa, E., & Almeida, I. F. (2021). Usage of Synthetic Peptides in Cosmetics for Sensitive Skin. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 14(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080702
  • Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 is attributed to the restoration of normal levels of fibrillin-1 which is an important constituent of fibrillin-rich microfibrils. This significantly improves the skin texture. Watson, R. E., Ogden, S., Cotterell, L. F., Bowden, J. J., Bastrilles, J. Y., Long, S. P., & Griffiths, C. E. (2009). Effects of a cosmetic ‘anti-aging’ product improve photoaged skin [corrected]. Br J Dermatol, 161(2), 419-426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09216.x
  • Palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 suppresses the secretion of IL-6 which functions to reduce inflammation following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. Resende, D., Ferreira, M. S., Sousa-Lobo, J. M., Sousa, E., & Almeida, I. F. (2021). Usage of Synthetic Peptides in Cosmetics for Sensitive Skin. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 14(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080702

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 (Pal-GHK) (Skin Signaling Peptide):

  • The activity of palmitoyl tripeptide-1 is comparable to retinoids, however, the peptide does not cause skin irritation. Errante, F., Ledwoń, P., Latajka, R., Rovero, P., & Papini, A. M. (2020). Cosmeceutical Peptides in the Framework of Sustainable Wellness Economy. Front Chem, 8, 572923. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.572923
  • Palmitoyl tripeptide-1 tends to promote collagen synthesis by the fibroblasts Lintner, K., & Peschard, O. (2000). Biologically active peptides: from a laboratory bench curiosity to a functional skin care product. Int J Cosmet Sci, 22(3), 207-218. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-2494.2000.00010.x
  • Palmitoyl tripeptide-1 modulates the catalytic activity of anti-proteases and metalloproteinases, thus, regulating the cutaneous protein breakdown. This prevents the accumulation of damaged proteins as well as prevents excessive proteolysis. Huang, P. J., Huang, Y. C., Su, M. F., Yang, T. Y., Huang, J. R., & Jiang, C. P. (2007). In vitro observations on the influence of copper peptide aids for the LED photoirradiation of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Photomed Laser Surg, 25(3), 183-190. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2007.2062
  • The skin regeneration is also improved via stimulation of epidermal basal cells and increased expression of integrins and p63 Kang, Y. A., Choi, H. R., Na, J. I., Huh, C. H., Kim, M. J., Youn, S. W., Kim, K. H., & Park, K. C. (2009). Copper-GHK increases integrin expression and p63 positivity by keratinocytes. Arch Dermatol Res, 301(4), 301-306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00403-009-0942-x
  • Palmitoyl tripeptide-1 enhances wound healing by improving the contraction of the wound, synthesis of granular tissue, greater catalytic activity of antioxidant enzymes, and promoting the growth of blood vessels. (Arul et al., 2005; Canapp et al., 2003; Cangul et al., 2006; Gomes et al., 2017; Gul et al., 2008)
  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 protect the skin keratinocytes against ultraviolet radiations of the sun. This also promotes the activity of antioxidant enzymes as well as inactivates the free radicals including glyoxal, 4-hydroxynoneal, malondialdehyde, and acrolein which are lipid peroxidation by-products. Beretta, G., Arlandini, E., Artali, R., Anton, J. M., & Maffei Facino, R. (2008). Acrolein sequestering ability of the endogenous tripeptide glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK): characterization of conjugation products by ESI-MSn and theoretical calculations. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 47(3), 596-602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2008.02.012
  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation, suppressing the synthesis of free radicals. The peptide binds to lipid peroxidation products and prevents these from exerting damaging effects. Cebrián, J., Messeguer, A., Facino, R. M., & García Antón, J. M. (2005). New anti-RNS and -RCS products for cosmetic treatment. Int J Cosmet Sci, 27(5), 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2494.2005.00279.x

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 (Pal-KVK) (Skin Signaling Peptide):

  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 is particularly for those who have sensitive skin types. Resende, D., Ferreira, M. S., Sousa-Lobo, J. M., Sousa, E., & Almeida, I. F. (2021). Usage of Synthetic Peptides in Cosmetics for Sensitive Skin. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 14(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080702
  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 stimulates the function of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) which is responsible for collagen production and suppression of the activity of matrix metalloproteases that degrade collagen Errante, F., Ledwoń, P., Latajka, R., Rovero, P., & Papini, A. M. (2020). Cosmeceutical Peptides in the Framework of Sustainable Wellness Economy. Front Chem, 8, 572923. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.572923 , and Trookman et al., 2009)
  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 stimulates the production of type I and type III collagen by the fibroblasts in the dermis and plays a significant role in optimal wound healing contributes to the increased collagen concentration in the dermal extracellular matrix. Schagen, S. K. (2017). Topical peptide treatments with effective anti-aging results. Cosmetics, 4(2), 16.
  • Anti-inflammatory properties of palmitoyl tripeptide-5 are beneficial for inflammatory skin conditions and changes in the skin associated with dermal aging . Resende, D., Ferreira, M. S., Sousa-Lobo, J. M., Sousa, E., & Almeida, I. F. (2021). Usage of Synthetic Peptides in Cosmetics for Sensitive Skin. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 14(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080702
  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide 5 an effective ingredient for inflamed and sensitive skin. . Resende, D., Ferreira, M. S., Sousa-Lobo, J. M., Sousa, E., & Almeida, I. F. (2021). Usage of Synthetic Peptides in Cosmetics for Sensitive Skin. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 14(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080702

Palm oil:

  • Palm oil helps to maintain shape and structure of epidermis palmitic acid component of palm oil, (Elias, P. M., Brown, B. E., & Ziboh, V. A.) (1980).
  • Palm oil helps to maintain synthesis of ceramides in the epidermis linoleic acid component of palm oil (Elias, P. M., Brown, B. E., & Ziboh, V. A.) (1980).
  • Palm oil reduces oxidative stress and keeping the skin from aging effects vitamin E component of palm oil (Nasrollahi, S. A., Ayatollahi, A., Yazdanparast, T., Samadi, A., Hosseini, H., Shamsipour, M., Akhlaghi, A. A., Yadangi, S., Abels, C., & Firooz, A.) (2018).
  • Palm oil is a natural moisturizer & emollient (Mieremet, A., Helder, R., Nadaban, A., Gooris, G., Boiten, W., El Ghalbzouri, A., & Bouwstra, J. A.) (2019).

Red Raspberry Seed Oil:

  • Raspberries have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties that help attain optimal physical and neurological health and influence gene expression, cell signaling pathways, and other cellular processes. Burton-Freeman, B. M., Sandhu, A. K., & Edirisinghe, I. (2016). Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links. Adv Nutr, 7(1), 44-65. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.009639 and Šućurović, A., Vukelić, N., Ignjatović, L., Brčeski, I., & Jovanović, D. (2009). Physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of oil obtained from the lyophilized raspberry seed. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 111(11), 1133-1141. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200900022

 

  • Vitamin A content of Red Raspberry Seed Oil induces histological changes in the epidermis and dermis of the skin as well as in the collagen, which leads to improvements of the skin. Angelo, Vitamin A and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-A
  • The vitamin C content of Red Raspberry Seed Oil promotes the activity of collagen hydroxylase in the fibroblasts, stabilizing the collagen cross-links. Pullar, J. M., Carr, A. C., & Vissers, M. C. M. (2017). The Roles of Vitamin C in Skin Health. Nutrients, 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080866
  • Red Raspberry Seed Oil delivers essential fatty acids (EFA) to the skin which helps alleviate sensitivity to chemical irritants, reduce transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and improves the texture of the skin. The EFA’s strengthen the permeability and antimicrobial barrier of the skin, mediating the homeostasis of the skin barrier. Michels, A. J. (2012). Vitamin E and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-E and Lin, T. K., Zhong, L., & Santiago, J. L. (2017). Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils. Int J Mol Sci, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010070
  • Both the Omega 9 and vitamin C content of Red Raspberry Seed Oil accelerates the closure of the wound and the vitamin C content also reduces the formation of permanent scar tissue (Angelo, 2012a) and
  • Pullar, J. M., Carr, A. C., & Vissers, M. C. M. (2017). The Roles of Vitamin C in Skin Health. Nutrients, 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080866
  • The combined effect of the vitamin C & vitamin E content of Red Raspberry Seed Oil C has anti-inflammatory effects against several chronic inflammatory skin conditions. Michels, A. J. (2012). Vitamin E and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-E
  • The omega 6 content of Red Raspberry Seed Oil acid help improve the function of the epidermis and treat and prevent the reoccurrence of skin lesions in psoriasis, it promote the production of ceramides which improve the skin barrier and enhances hydration and omega 6 regulates the proliferation of keratinocytes, promotes the metabolism and synthesis of epidermal lipids, and modulates the homeostasis of the skin barrier. Lin, T. K., Zhong, L., & Santiago, J. L. (2017). Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils. Int J Mol Sci, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010070

 

  • Red Raspberry Seed Oil contains a significant amount of δ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and tocotrienols. (vitamin E) which have antioxidant properties.  Delinasios, G. J., Karbaschi, M., Cooke, M. S., & Young, A. R. (2018). Vitamin E inhibits the UVAI induction of “light” and “dark” cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and oxidatively generated DNA damage, in keratinocytes. Sci Rep, 8(1), 423. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18924-4
  • Vitamin E-containing formulation alters the gene expression of collagen 3, hemoxygenase-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Vitamin E contributes to improvement in skin elasticity, firmness, fine lines, wrinkles. It also stimulates remodeling of the dermis resulting in increased dermal thickness. Farris, P., Yatskayer, M., Chen, N., Krol, Y., & Oresajo, C. (2014). Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of a nighttime topical antioxidant containing resveratrol, baicalin, and vitamin e for treatment of mild to moderately photodamaged skin. J Drugs Dermatol, 13(12), 1467-1472 and Grether-Beck, S., Marini, A., Jaenicke, T., & Krutmann, J. (2015). Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle-controlled, double-blind, randomized study. Photochem Photobiol, 91(1), 248-250. https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12375
  • Red Raspberry Seed Oil contains many types of flavonoids. Flavonoids such as hesperitin and naringenin penetrate through the skin and protect the skin against erythema caused by exposure to UVB radiation. Flavonoids tend to absorb UVR before they penetrate and damage the skin. Angelo, G. (2012b). Flavonoids and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/flavonoids
  • The topical application of red raspberry seed oil containing vitamin E prevents the keratinocytes from the detrimental effects of the UVR and improves the appearance of the skin Delinasios, G. J., Karbaschi, M., Cooke, M. S., & Young, A. R. (2018). Vitamin E inhibits the UVAI induction of “light” and “dark” cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and oxidatively generated DNA damage, in keratinocytes. Sci Rep, 8(1), 423. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18924-4

Rose Hips Oil:

  • Rosehips oil, beating the Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Psoriasis. Dobrică, E. C., Cozma, M. A., Găman, M. A., Voiculescu, V. M., & Găman, A. M. (2022). The Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)11(2), 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020282

Safflower oil:

  • Safflower oil reduces oxidative stress vitamin E component of safflower oil, (Agero, A. L., & Verallo-Rowell, V. M.) (2004).
  • Safflower oil improves epidermal barrier functioning, helps to restore previously defected structure (Ando, H., Ryu, A., Hashimoto, A., Oka, M., & Ichihashi, M.) (1998)
  • Safflower oil improves the synthesis of ceramide (essential fatty acid & linoleic acid component of safflower oil, Lee, M. H., Kim, H. J., Ha, D. J., Paik, J. H., & Kim, H. Y.) (2002).

Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate (emulsifier & skin conditioner):

  • Sodium stearoyl lactylate enhances the polarity of the skin. Sodium stearoyl lactylate mixes with the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum and stimulates fluidity of the lipid chains. It is retained on the skin surface while elevating the polar component of the skin. This helps organize the lipid matrix and helps the barrier function and permeability of the skin with a emphasis on moisturization and hydration of the skin. Lemery, E., et al. (2015) Surfactants Have Multi-Fold Effects on Skin Barrier Function. European Journal of Dermatology, 25, 424-435. https://doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2015.2587
  • Lactylates are effective skin elasticity enhancing agents that improve the elasticity of the outer layer of skin, the stratum corneum. Hagan, D. B. (1995). Method for enhancing human skin elasticity by applying octanoyl lactylic acid thereto. In: Google Patents.
  • Sodium stearoyl lactylate has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of 10. Especially when used in soap and creams, this compound forms a barrier on the skin and prevents the superficial layers of the layers from being removed while washing with the soap thus preserving the skins natural oils and lipids and preventing the skin from drying out. Jensen, C. D., & Andersen, K. E. (2005). Allergic contact dermatitis from sodium stearoyl lactylate, an emulsifier commonly used in food products. Contact Dermatitis, 53(2), 116. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.0650c.x

This Lactylates compound improves and restores the texture of the skin by reducing the scaling and dryness of the skin. Hagan, D. B. (1995). Method for enhancing human skin elasticity by applying octanoyl lactylic acid thereto. In: Google Patents.

Sorbitol:

  • Topical sorbitol repairs and strengthens the skin barrier, reducing transepidermal water loss (TEWL) & protects the skin against sodium chloride-induced osmotic toxicity. Muizzuddin, N., Ingrassia, M., Marenus, K. D., Maes, D. H., & Mammone, T. (2013). Effect of seasonal and geographical differences on skin and effect of treatment with an osmoprotectant: Sorbitol. J Cosmet Sci, 64(3), 165-174.
  • The Humectant Properties of Sorbitol and Its Role in Managing Dermatologic Conditions and Sorbitol has wound healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and anti-mitotic properties. Purnamawati, S., Indrastuti, N., Danarti, R., & Saefudin, T. (2017). The Role of Moisturizers in Addressing Various Kinds of Dermatitis: A Review. Clin Med Res, 15(3-4), 75-87. https://doi.org/10.3121/cmr.2017.1363
  • Sorbitol Exhibits significant improvement in both barrier repair and moisturization (Muizzuddin N, Ingrassia M, Marenus KD, Maes DH, Mammone T. J Cosmet Sci. 2013 May-Jun;64(3):165-74. PMID: 23752031.)

Vitamin A

(Component of red raspberry seed oil, cranberry seed oil, avocado oil & rose hips oil)

  • The vitamin A component stimulates production of collagen I, restoring the normal levels of collagen in photo-damaged skin. It also increases the granular cell layers, the thickness of the epidermis, and compaction of the stratum corneum along with a reduction in the levels of melanin in the skin. Angelo, G. (2012c). Vitamin A and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-A
  • The topical application of vitamin A also increases the extent of the subepidermal repair zone characterized by newly formed bundles of collagen. Angelo, G. (2012c). Vitamin A and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-A

Vitamin C :

(Component of red raspberry seed oil, cranberry seed oil & rose hips oil)

  • The vitamin C component promotes the activity of collagen hydroxylase in the fibroblasts, stabilizing the collagen cross-links. Vitamin C protects the skin against oxidative damage by scavenging the UVR-induced free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Vitamin C also reduced the production of melanin, termed melanogenesis, which facilitates the treatment of hyperpigmentation in skin conditions such as age spots and melisma. Pullar, J. M., Carr, A. C., & Vissers, M. C. M. (2017). The Roles of Vitamin C in Skin Health. Nutrients, 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080866
  • Vitamin C regulates the redox-sensitive signaling in the skin cells and increases the survival of the skin cells. Vitamin C reduces oxidative damage to the cellular DNA and lipids as well as modulates the release of inflammatory cytokines. Michels, A. J. (2011). Vitamin C and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-C

Vitamin E:

(Component of red raspberry seed oil, cranberry seed oil, avocado oil, rose hips oil & grape seed oil)

  • The broad spectrum of vitamin E components including δ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and tocotrienols scavenges free radicals, reduces lipid peroxidation, and inhibits photoimmunosuppression and also prevents the production of UVB-induced pyrimidine dimers. Delinasios, G. J., Karbaschi, M., Cooke, M. S., & Young, A. R. (2018). Vitamin E inhibits the UVAI induction of “light” and “dark” cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and oxidatively generated DNA damage, in keratinocytes. Sci Rep, 8(1), 423. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18924-4
  • Vitamin E is an important anti-inflammatory constituent and works like this: Gamma tocotrienol and alpha tocopherol reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins and interleukins in the keratinocytes. Vitamin E also suppresses the activity of NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Michels, A. J. (2012). Vitamin E and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-E
  • The vitamin E component also prevents and reduces the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) otherwise induced by exposure to IRA. Reduced synthesis of MMP-1 is associated with reduced degradation of collagen. Vitamin E contributes to improvement in skin elasticity, firmness, fine lines, wrinkles. (Farris et al., 2014; Grether-Beck et al., 2015)
  • Topical application of vitamin E accumulates in the cell membranes and extracellular lipid matrix in the stratum corneum, contributing to the antioxidant defenses of the skin. This has a sunscreen effect as it absorbs the UVR of the sun and suppresses the formation of UVR-mediated free radicals and reactive oxygen species, protecting the skin against oxidative damage. Michels, A. J. (2012). Vitamin E and Skin Health. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-E

Vitamin K:

(Component of cranberry seed oil)

  • Vitamin K improves non-transient erythema, dryness, telangiectasia, flushing, and burning of the skin in steroid-induced rosacea. Abdullah, G. A. (2020). The effectiveness of topical vitamin k cream 1% in the treatment of steroid-induced rosacea. Group, 4(38.2), 25.

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