GRAPE SEED OIL

ABSTRACT:

Grape seed oil is a natural product which has many beneficial effects to the body and particularly to the skin. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-pruritic properties which help in preventing and slowing the progress of diseases like Psoriasis and dermatitis. It also plays an essential role in hydration of skin, in preventing the aging of skin, protection of skin from UV radiations and protection against carcinogenic products. Not only limited to that, it plays an essential role in fighting against acne, reducing scar formation as a result of acne and reducing dark circles under the eye. In hairs, it also promote growth of hair follicles and make them strong and healthy preventing hair loss. 

GRAPE SEED OIL

Grape seed oil is one of the by-product produced mostly from vineyard and wine producing industries produced after fermentation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). It has various chemical substances which render it perfect for nourishment of skin, in treatment of dermatological conditions and it also possess a high nutritional value [1].

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 The major constituent in Grape seed oil is poly unsaturated fatty acid (double bond unsaturated) which comprises of about 85-90% of the total composition, and among these unsaturated fatty acids, the most abundant constituent in Omega 6 (Linoleic acid) which is high in anti-oxidant properties which have a beneficial rule in maintaining healthy skin [2]. Other unsaturated fatty acids present in Grape seed oil are Oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid [3]. Not only limited to that, grape seed oil is also abundant in Vitamin E isomers such as carotenoid, tocopherols, phenolic acid, tocotrienols [4].   

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS TO THE SKIN:

  • HYDRATION OF THE SKIN:

Products which are rich in oil can all be used as a moisturizers and functions to hydrate the skin [5]. However, they may leave the skin oily after application; on the other hand Grape seed oil is easily absorbed in the skin without leaving the skin oily and is extremely light and friendly to the skin. 

Many previous researches showed that grape seed oil results in no allergic reaction in individuals with sensitive skin [6,7]. One particular study model, applied grape seed oil topically on individuals with sensitive skin type but no allergic reaction or irritation was observed even after application for 22 days [5].  

  • REGENERATIVE PROPERTIES:

Grape seed oil also is effective in regenerating the skin, stimulating skin growth and reducing the TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss). This regenerative and healing property is due to the presence of linoleic acid as proposed in previous studies [8, 9]. 

Individuals with dry skin type has a low level of linoleic acid which results in dry, itchy skin with increased TEWL. Since, grape seed oil is rich is linoleic acid it efficiently reduce the trans-epidermal water loss within the time frame of 48 hours [10, 11].  

  • IN TREATMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS:

Grape seed oil is rich in anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is mostly used in combination with other products such as hyaluronic acid. To ascertain the role of oil in treatment of dermatitis, a randomized, multicenter clinical study was conducted on 218 patients suffering from mild to moderate degree of atopic dermatitis for 22 days. In the study, it was concluded that formulation with grape seed oil were effective in reducing itching and declining the intensity of other symptoms after the 22 days of treatment [17]. 

Some other studies also pointed out the fact that grape seed oil can be used as a mono-therapy to hydrate the skin and to treat the mild and moderate symptoms of atopic dermatitis when applied regularly to the skin [18, 19].  

  • IN TREATMENT OF PSORIASIS:

Psoriasis is an auto-immune condition resulting in abnormal proliferation of the skin. In one of the study a formulation was prepared using grape seed oil, sunflower seed oil etc. to investigate the effect and efficacy of psoriatic plaque. It was concluded in the study that the formulation containing grape seed oil was effective in treating the psoriatic skin without any side effects. It also recorded to have reduced the severity of the disease and exerted a beneficial effect on health of the skin [16].

Antioxidants in the grape seed oil reduce the nitric acid level, hydroxyl group or free radical present in the blood all of which act as an oxidants and induce a deleterious effect on the skin of patients with psoriasis. Other properties of polyphenols are anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory. It also inhibit inflammatory process by suppressing calgranulins A and B genes. Grape seed oil also provide a symptomatic treatment relieving itching and prevent flaring of the skin in patients with Psoriasis. A study evaluating the results of grape seed oil on skin postulated that it may also have a potential of emulsification which help in skin hydration along with producing an anti-inflammatory effect [29].

Many of other previous studies also postulated that grape seed produce promising effect by preventing angiogenesis (a phenomenon in which vascular system grows and expands) and also facilitating the wound closure in hyper-proliferative skin of psoriasis. Another active ingredient in grape seed oil is Proanthocyanidins speed up the recovery process of wounds in psoriatic skin via the help of vascular endothelial growth factor. The carrier oils in mixture of grape seed oil also help in reinforcement of moisturizing properties of the skin as well as soothing the irritable skin in patients with psoriasis [30].

  • HEALING AND REDUCING SCAR FORMATION:

Grape seed oil has act as an anti-oxidant by combating with free radicals and helping the skin to maintain its firmness. Due to anti-oxidant properties, it also has a beneficial effect in reducing the inflammatory process, swelling and lightning the scar tissues. 

Regular application of grape seed oil deliver astringents (compounds promoting skin contraction) which help in tightening of the skin, accelerate healing of the wound and diminish scar tissue formation [5, 12, 13]. In one of the study, the wounds of skin in one group were treated with application on grape seed oil while the other group was treated without the application of the oil. It was concluded in the study that the group which was being treated with the grape seed oil showed better healing and reduced scarring as compared to the other group [13]. 

  • ANTI-AGING PROPERTIES:

The potential of grape seed oil in combatting harmful free radicals in the skin not only promote healthy skin but also functions as an anti-aging property [6,14]. The major indicators of aging i.e. wrinkles and fine lines can be efficiently reduced by its application of the skin since it protect against the free radicals as well as providing enough moisture to promote healthy skin [5]. Not only limited to that, grape seed oil may also increase the presence of collagens and elastin in the skin which are considered as a building block for rejuvenating the skin [12]. 

Not only topical administration, but it was concluded by the University of Maryland Medical Center that ingestion of grape seed oil may increase the concentration of anti-oxidants in the blood thus promoting many beneficial effects.

  • FIGHT AGAINST ACNE:

Acne is a skin condition affecting the hair follicles and sweat glands in the skin, particularly that of the face. They may also result in scarring and pitting of the skin resulting in severe disfigurement and poor cosmetics especially if present on the skin of face [15]. 

Linoleic acid is the main ingredient in grape seed oil which strengthen the cell membrane, improve quality of skin and prevent clogging of pores due to its action as an anti-oxidant. As well as, its property as an anti-inflammatory mediator helps in preventing the outbreak of acne. 

  • ROLE IN TREATMENT OF DARK CIRCLES UNDER THE EYE:

Black circles mostly results from dehydration, excessive exposure to harmful skin radiations, sleep deprivation and consumption of alcoholic beverages. 

However, grape seed oil has a great potential to reduce dark circles under the eye on regular application. To ascertain the effects of regular application of oil, a clinical study was conducted in which the oil was applied to the half face of six participants for a time interval of 10-30 days. On inspecting the dark circles, they concluded that the dark circles that were previously present in the participants were greatly reduced after 10-30 days application of grape seed oil [5]. 

  • PROTECTION AGAINST ULTRA-VOILET B RADIATIONS:

Ultra violet radiations from the sun are considered to be harmful to human skin resulting in aging [20], development of skin cancer etc. Grape seed oil has potential to protect and create a barrier on the outer most layer of the skin i.e. the keratinocyte layer of the skin thus rendering the UV radiations ineffective in producing harmful effects and free radicals in the skin. This property of grape seed oil is essentially due to the presence of polyphenols, presented by pro-antocyanidins and catechins [21]. 

It is also found that grape seed oil also have a promising role in preventing skin cancer by cancelling the oxidative insults on the skin and protecting the immune system in the body [22]. 

  • PROMOTING HEALTH OF THE HAIRS:

Men pattern baldness or androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common cause of hair loss in male population and effect over 70% of men by the age of 50 years [23, 24, 25]. Grape seed oil is found to improve the blood flow to the scalp and promote hair growth and strengthen the hair follicles [26, 27, 25]. 

Not only limiting to that, it act as a great hair conditioner, helps to improve hair texture, eliminated the negative odors caused due to sweat and pollutants [28]. 

REFERENCES: 

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Morse, T. J., & Selmont, T. A. (2013). U.S. Patent No. 8,545,904. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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