Coenzyme Q10

The family of coenzyme Q is a co-enzyme family that is found in all the animals and bacteria. In human, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is the most common member of this family.

It is a nutrient that is not only synthesized in our body but also can be obtained from dietary supplementations. It is anti-oxidant in nature, plays an important part in metabolic actions of body and protects against the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They include hydrogen peroxide, single oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicals which are abundantly produced in the body. ROS are extremely dangerous to the cell, producing oxidative damage to the lipids, proteins and DNA component of the living cell [1, 2].

STRUCTURE

The family of co-enzyme Q is fat-soluble, which closely resembles the vitamins. They are synthesized and present in the mitochondria of almost all the eukaryotic animals. It is a component of reactions which produce ATP (which is the source of energy in the living organism, around 95% of energy in the body is produced by it).

Co-enzyme Q10 is a 1, 4-benzoquinone. The name actually imply to the chemical structure of this coenzyme, where Q represent the fact that it is Quinone in nature and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl units attached to the tail. 

The organs with highest demand and concentration of Co-enzyme Q10 are heart, liver, skin and kidney. [3,4,5]

ROLE OF CoQ10 IN THE HEALTH OF SKIN

The release of ROS and free radicals are responsible for damage to the components of cells including lipids, protein and DNA. As the cell ages, more ROS is produced as a result of changes in cellular respiration [6,7,8]. In the skin, the production of reactive oxygen species can also results due to the exposure of ultraviolet radiations [9]. This results in impaired energy metabolism in skin which then results in aging of the skin [10].

CoQ10 is known as an anti-oxidant which can cope up with the damages of UV radiations on the skin. However, the rate of Q10 decrease with the increasing age [11] as well as UV radiations may cause oxidative damage to the skin cells which reduces the Q10 levels in the skin [12]. There is various significance of CoQ10 on skin which are discussed as under:

PROTECTS AGAINST THE OXIDATIVE STRESS

Co-enzyme Q10 acts as an antioxidant in the skin with its quantity around 10 times higher in epidermis than it is in the dermis [13]. The epidermal layer of skin in exposed to the ultraviolet radiations of sun on daily basis however, CoQ10 helps in reducing the oxidative stress induced by the UV radiations.

According to one study, ultraviolet A radiations are likely to disturb the potential of the mitochondrial membrane [14] which is important because CoQ10 is synthesized there, and damage to the mitochondrial membrane can affect the production of CoQ10. The study concluded that CoQ10 when applied topically exerts a beneficial effect by reducing the damage to the mitochondrial membrane, and may act as an anti-oxidant in human cells from young as well as old individuals [15].

PROTECTS AGAINST THE AGING OF SKIN

Two aging processes i.e. chronological and photo aging are observed in the skin. However both are different.  Chronological aging is the genetically determined and inherited process with some interaction of various hormones and genetically determined and possibly with some hormonal influence [16, 17]. Photo aging, on the other hand, is solely caused by ultraviolet A and B radiations.

An experiment conducted on the skin concluded that Coenzyme Q10 can reduce the hazardous effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) radiations on the dermal fibroblast (they are a type of cells which secrete extracellular matrix and collagen, provide the structural framework and stability to the skin and plays a critical role in wound healing) and maintain the dermal matrix [15]

ACT AS ANTIOXIDANT IN THE SKIN

According to the study, the ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was calculated after ultraviolet A irradiation in two age groups, Group A was aged 18–25 years whereas, Group B was aged 60–72 years. The concentration of UPE was increased in the skin of individuals from Group B and a reduction in the levels of anti-oxidants was also observed to be decreased by around 33%. This revealed that antioxidant levels are decreased in the skin of older individuals. 

CoQ10 was then applied to the skin of individuals from both the groups for few weeks and after that, they were again exposed to UVA radiations but this time the areas treated with CoQ10 shown to have lower levels of UPE and higher levels of antioxidants. Therefore this study concluded that coenzyme Q10 can efficiently work as an antioxidant and protect against the hazardous effects of ultraviolet radiations of the sun [15].

PREVENT WRINKLING OF THE SKIN

To demonstrate if there is any effect of coenzyme Q10 on the wrinkling of skin, an experiment was conducted on 20 elderly individuals in which they were asked to apply CoQ10 on the skin for several days. It was concluded by photography that skin of the elderly individual had shown deep wrinkles (associated with photo aging) and fine wrinkles (associated with chronological aging). After the application, the photographs reveal a drastic reduction in the deep wrinkles of the participants whereas, fine wrinkles which are associated with chronological aging Photographs of the skin before treatment shows deep wrinkles and fine wrinkles to be evident on the skin. Whereas, photographs after the application of CoQ10 reveals that the depth of deep wrinkles was drastically reduced however, fine wrinkles which were associated with chronological aging were still present. From the above mentioned experimentation it can be concluded that CoQ10 not only protect against the oxidative stresses but also helps in delaying the aging process in the skin and significantly reduce the deep wrinkles of the skin [15]. 

COENZYME Q10 CAN ALSO BE TOPICALLY APPLIED

Coenzyme Q10 can be obtained from diet and oral supplementation [18] which can help to increase the total concentration of Q10 levels in the plasma of the blood [19] however, the oral supplementations were not able to increase the levels of coenzyme Q10 in outermost layer of the skin [20]. 

CoQ10 is found in integration with skin surface lipids which are part of corneum stratum and the waterproof barrier of the skin. CoQ10 is also important as this location since this layer is continuously being exposed to the UV radiations, air pollutions, chemical oxidants and micro-organisms [21]. The CoQ10 levels of the skin are prone be decreased with continuous oxidative stress as mentioned previously.

However, when CoQ10 administered topically can produce a powerful antioxidant effects on the skin. With the topical administration, short term stress induced by the environment as well as age related stress. 

In young individuals, Q10 may help to neutralize the oxidative stress and make the skin healthy and young. Whereas, in the older individuals the levels of CoQ10 which were previously reduced might be replenished. Thus, regular use of Q10 on skin can significantly protect the outermost skin layer in all the age categories [22]. 

ROLE IN VARIOUS OTHER PARTS OF BODY

The production of this co-enzyme may decrease with the increasing age. The other factors which may result in decreased co-enzyme are vitamin B6 deficiency, mitochondrial diseases, side effects of antihypertensive drugs (statins) and genetic defects in production or utilization of Coenzyme Q10. 

It plays a significant role in many organs of the body which are discussed as under. 

HEART

In many heart diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure and high blood pressure; the levels of CoQ10 are significantly reduced. Many studies suggest that treatment from CoQ10 may improve the symptoms and improve the heart conditions [23,24].

CoQ10 treatment assists in reducing the oxidative stress in the heart and restores the energy levels of heart [25].

FERTILITY

Various studies suggest that supplementation with CoQ10 may improve the age related decrease in quality and quantity of eggs in female and improve the activity, motility and quality of sperms by protecting against the reactive oxygen species [26, 27].

LUNGS

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) like asthma and emphysema have shown to have low levels of CoQ10. 

Many studies are conducted which conclude that supplementations with CoQ10 might decrease the inflammation in asthma and improve the exercise performance in such individuals. [28, 29,30, 31, 32]

BRAIN

The brain is very prone to oxidative stress, which might affect the memory and functioning of brain and result in diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

CoQ10 may be helpful in delaying the progress of these diseases and remove the oxidative species from the brain. [33, 34,35, 36]

CANCER

Coenzyme Q10 protects the living cells from oxidative stress; promote the health, survival and cellular energy productions [37]. Low levels of CoQ10 have been shown to be associated with around 50% higher risk of developing cancer. [37, 38,39]

It have been concluded in studies that supplements with Coenzyme Q10 may reduce the reoccurrence of cancer. [40]

CONCLUSION

Coenzyme Q10 is a fundamental molecule in the body of human. It has been revealed by many studies that it is anti-oxidant in nature combating against the oxidative reactions of the skin and protecting the living cells against the harmful radiations of the sun. 

It is present most abundantly in liver, heart and kidneys, and help in protecting various organs against various diseases and insults. For instance, as described above it may help in many cardiac, pulmonary and brain diseases. It may also help in delaying the aging process of the body and combat against the development of cancer.

While talking about the skin, it protect the lipids, fibroblasts, skin cells and water proof barrier against the insult of harmful radiations, toxins and pathogens. Not only limiting to that, it produce anti-oxidant effect on skin as well and is also found to provide a significant role in reducing the aging of skin and prevent its wrinkling.

Topical administration to the skin can replenish the levels of CoQ10 back to normal and protect it against the hazardous radiations therefore; daily administration can make the skin healthy, fresh and induce anti-aging effects as well. Oral supplementations are also preset however; they have no effect on CoQ10 level of the skin. 

References

  1. K.B. Beckman and B.N. Ames, Oxidative decay of DNA, The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272(32) (1997), 19 633–19 636.
  2.  B.S. Berlett and E.R. Stadtman, Protein oxidation in aging, disease, and oxidative stress, The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272(33) (1997), 20 313–20 316.
  3. Okamoto T, Matsuya T, Fukunaga Y, Kishi T, Yamagami T (1989). “Human serum ubiquinol-10 levels and relationship to serum lipids”. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition. 59 (3): 288–92.
  4. Aberg F, Appelkvist EL, Dallner G, Ernster L (June 1992). “Distribution and redox state of ubiquinones in rat and human tissues”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 295 (2): 230–4.
  5. Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Epstein W, Packer L (January 1994). “Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin”. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 102 (1): 122–4.
  6. Harman, D. (1956) Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J. Gerontol. 11, 293–300
  7. Sohal, R. S. (1991) Hydrogen peroxide production by mitochondria may be a biomarker of aging. Mech. Ageing Dev. 60, 189–198
  8. Zwerschke, W., Mazurek, S., Stock, lP., Hutter, E., Eigenbrodt, E., et al. (2003)  Metabolic analysis of senescent human fibroblasts reveals a role for AMP in cellular senescence. Biochem. J. 376, 403–411.
  9. Scharffetter-Kochanek, K., Brenneisen, P., Wenk, J., Herrmann, G., Ma, W., et al. (2000) Photoaging of the skin from phenotype to mechanisms. Exp. Gerontol. 35, 307–316.
  10. Blatt, T. and Littarru, G. P. (2011) Biochemical rationale and experimental data on the antiaging properties of CoQ(10) at skin level. Biofactors 37, 381– 385.
  11. Hoppe, U., Bergemann, J., Diembeck, W., Ennen, J., Gohla, S., et al. (1999) Coenzyme Q10, a cutaneous antioxidant and energizer. Biofactors 9, 371– 378.
  12. Podda, M., Traber, M. G., Weber, C., Yan, L. J., and Packer, L. (1998) UVirradiation depletes antioxidants and causes oxidative damage in a model of human skin. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 24, 55–65.
  13. Y. Shindo, E. Witt, D. Han, W. Epstein and L. Packer, Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin, Journal of Investigative Dermatology 102 (1994), 122–124.
  14. S. Tada-Oikawa, S. Oikawa and S. Kawanishi, Role of ultraviolet A-induced oxidative DNA damage in apoptosis via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation, Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications 247(3) (1998), 693–696.
  15. Hoppe U, Bergemann J, Diembeck W, Ennen J, Gohla S, Harris I, Jacob J, Kielholz J, Mei W, Pollet D, Schachtschabel D. Coenzyme Q_ {10}, a cutaneous antioxidant and energizer. Biofactors. 1999 Jan 1;9(24):371-8.
  16. M. Peterlik, Aging, neuroendocrine function, and osteroporosis, Experimental Gerontology 32(4,5) (1997), 577–586.
  17. S. Shuster, M.M. Black and E. McVitie, The influence of age and sex on skin thickness, skin collagen and density, British Journal of Dermatology 93 (1975), 639–643.
  18. Kwong, L. K., Kamzalov, S., Rebrin, I., Bayne, A. C., Jana, C. K., et al. (2002) Effects of coenzyme Q(10) administration on its tissue concentrations, mitochondrial oxidant generation, and oxidative stress in the rat. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33, 627–638.
  19. Bentinger, M., Brismar, K., and Dallner, G. (2007) The antioxidant role of coenzyme Q. Mitochondrion 7(Suppl), S41–S50.
  20. Passi, S., de Pita, S., Puddu, O., and Littarru, P. G. P. (2002) Lipophilic anti- oxidants in human sebum and aging. Free Radic. Res. 36, 471–477.
  21. Thiele, J. J., Schroeter, C., Hsieh, S. N., Podda, M., and Packer, L. (2001) The antioxidant network of the stratum corneum. Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 26–42.
  22. Knott A, Achterberg V, Smuda C, Mielke H, Sperling G, Dunckelmann K, Vogelsang A, Krüger A, Schwengler H, Behtash M, Kristof S. Topical treatment with coenzyme Q 10containing formulas improves skin’s Q 10 level and provides antioxidative effects. Biofactors. 2015 Nov 12;41(6):383-90.
  23. Mortensen SA, Rosenfeldt F, Kumar A, Dolliner P, Filipiak KJ, Pella D, Alehagen U, Steurer G, Littarru GP, Q-SYMBIO study investigators. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial. JACC: Heart Failure. 2014 Dec 1;2(6):641-9.
  24. Morisco C, Trimarco B, Condorelli M. Effect of coenzyme Q 10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter randomized study. The clinical investigator. 1993 Aug 1;71(8):S134-6.
  25. DiNicolantonio JJ, Bhutani J, McCarty MF, O’Keefe JH. Coenzyme Q10 for the treatment of heart failure: a review of the literature. Open Heart. 2015 Oct 1;2(1).
  26. Lafuente R, González-Comadrán M, Solà I, López G, Brassesco M, Carreras R, Checa MA. Coenzyme Q10 and male infertility: a meta-analysis. Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics. 2013 Sep 1;30(9):1147-56.
  27. Ahmadi S, Bashiri R, Ghadiri-Anari A, Nadjarzadeh A. Antioxidant supplements and semen parameters: An evidence based review. International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine. 2016 Dec;14(12):729.
  28. Wada H, Hagiwara SI, Saitoh E, Ieki R, Okamura T, Ota T, Iguchi M, Yuasa K, Kodaka T, Koishi T, Yamamoto Y. Increased oxidative stress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as measured by redox status of plasma coenzyme Q10. Pathophysiology. 2006 Feb 21;13(1):29-33.
  29. Tanrikulu AC, Abakay A, Evliyaoglu O, Palanci Y. Coenzyme Q10, copper, zinc, and lipid peroxidation levels in serum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biological trace element research. 2011 Nov 1;143(2):659-67.
  30. Gazdik F, Gvozdjakova A, Nadvornikova R, Repicka L, Jahnova E, Kucharska J, Pijak MR, Gazdikova K. Decreased levels of coenzyme Q10 in patients with bronchial asthma. Allergy. 2002 Sep;57(9):811-4.
  31. Gvozdjáková A, Kucharská J, Bartkovjaková M, Gazdíková K, Gazdík F. Coenzyme Q_ {10} supplementation reduces corticosteroids dosage in patients with bronchial asthma. Biofactors. 2005 Jan 1;25(1-4):235-40.
  32. Fujimoto S, Kurihara N, Hirata K, Takeda T. Effects of coenzymeQ 10 administration on pulmonary function and exercise performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. The clinical investigator. 1993 Aug 1;71(8):S162-6.
  33. Hyun DH, Mughal MR, Yang H, Lee JH, Ko EJ, Hunt ND, de Cabo R, Mattson MP. The plasma membrane redox system is impaired by amyloid β-peptide and in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 3xTgAD mice. Experimental neurology. 2010 Oct 1;225(2):423-9.
  34. Kones R. Parkinson’s disease: mitochondrial molecular pathology, inflammation, statins, and therapeutic neuroprotective nutrition. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2010 Aug;25(4):371-89.
  35. Wadsworth TL, Bishop JA, Pappu AS, Woltjer RL, Quinn JF. Evaluation of coenzyme Q as an antioxidant strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2008 Jan 1;14(2):225-34.
  36. Shults CW, Oakes D, Kieburtz K, Beal MF, Haas R, Plumb S, Juncos JL, Nutt J, Shoulson I, Carter J, Kompoliti K. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Archives of neurology. 2002 Oct 1;59(10):1541-50.
  37. Cooney RV, Dai Q, Gao YT, Chow WH, Franke AA, Shu XO, Li H, Ji B, Cai Q, Chai W, Zheng W. Low plasma coenzyme Q10 levels and breast cancer risk in Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers. 2011 Jun 1;20(6):1124-30.
  38. Folkers K, Osterborg A, Nylander M, Morita M, Mellstedt H. Activities of vitamin Q10 in animal models and a serious deficiency in patients with cancer. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1997 May 19;234(2):296-9.
  39. Chai W, Cooney RV, Franke AA, Caberto CP, Wilkens LR, Le Marchand L, Goodman MT, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers. 2011 Apr 1;20(4):708-10.
  40. Rusciani L, Proietti I, Paradisi A, Rusciani A, Guerriero G, Mammone A, De Gaetano A, Lippa S. Recombinant interferon α-2b and coenzyme Q10 as a postsurgical adjuvant therapy for melanoma: a 3-year trial with recombinant interferon-α and 5-year follow-up. Melanoma research. 2007 Jun 1;17(3):177-83.
Shopping Cart